Table of contents for step 1
Install required and recommended packages, replacing
vim with your
$EDITOR of choice (e.g.
nano, both of which also have syntax highlighting, which helps when editing XML files) and stop the automatically started tomcat again (until we've done more configuration):
Redirect requests to Tomcat's web root ("
/") to a URL of your choice, e.g. your institution's home page, replacing "www.example.edu" below. The Shibboleth IDP application by default will run at
/idp, allowing you to easily add and update other content outside of
/idp, e.g. logos or CSS stylesheets without having them to integrate them with the "idp" context/application. The document root for that is in
/var/lib/tomcat9/webapps/ROOT/ and nothing in the Shibboleth IDP software (or during use of SAML) by default links to
/ of the server, so you can use that for locally hosted content without interfering with the IDP application. For example you will want to add a robots.txt file to prevent unnecessary scanning by well-behaving search bots.
JAVA_HOME for the current (and future) shell(s):
Create keypair and certificate chain
Do not use an existing wildcard certificate (if one is available that would also cover your IDP webserver) – just do the work as described below and create another certificate for your IDP. Under ACOnet's TCS agreement you can get unlimited globally valid commercial certificates. Alternatively (though not recommended for your eduID.at IDP) there's also https://letsencrypt.org/. So there should be no excuse to promiscuously share an existing TLS key pair across unrelated servers and services.
On the IDP server create an RSA private key and CSR for the web server's TLS certificate, e.g.:
Request a TLS certificate based on the CSR generated, e.g. from the ACOnet TCS. In the resulting email with the certificate there's also the CA chain file to use (e.g. called
DigiCertCA.crt). Copy the certificate and CA file to the server you're installing the IDP on (where the private key should already be, having been generated there).
Convert the TLS/SSL keypair into PKCS12
Create and note down a random password for your PKCS#12 keystore that will hold the above created TLS/SSL keypair plus the CA chain file:
Convert the TLS certificate you recieved from your CA (i.e., from DigiCert, if using ACOnet TCS), the locally generated private key and the certificate chain file into one password-protected PKCS#12 keystore file. When being asked for an "export password" set the previously generated (and noted down) password. Below you'll also add that password to the Tomcat server configuration:
Move the newly created keystore to its final location (we're chosing Tomcat's config directory) and set strict file system permissions on it:
Configure Tomcat Connector
Remove or comment out all other Connectors in
/etc/tomcat9/server.xml, then add the two Connectors as per below, replacing
keystorePass with the PKCS#12 keystore password generated earlier:
Start Tomcat, check for listening ports, and access
which should result in an
HTTP Status 404 error (since /foo won't exist) but allows you to confirm a hopefully valid TLS/SSL webserver configuration:
Next validate the TLS/SSL configuration on the system itself with
openssl (and quit again with ctrl-c or by typing
QUIT into the prompt):
Look for "Certificate chain" in the output from that command, e.g.
and verify that it looks something like the "Certificate chain" presented below. The Subject of cert 0 will obviously differ, and depending on your choice of CA or certificate product ("SSL Plus", "Unified Communications", "EV" etc.) the CA may also be different. A correct chain (and therfore PKCS#12 keystore) for TLS usage should contain all the certificates up until but excluding the root CA certificate. I.e, in the example below the certificate with
CN=DigiCert Assured ID Root CA is not included in the chain sent from the server:
In case of errors check the output of "journalctl -u tomcat9 -ef".
Tune log file creation
By default Tomcat logs additional (and duplicate) events to
/var/log/tomcat9/localhost.$date.log, which we don't care for. So let's create a backup copy of Tomcat's
logging.properties and replace its content with the minumum needed to get an access log comparable to Apache
/var/log/tomcat9/access.log. Tomcat's stdout/stderr will go to the systemd journal.
Then comment out or delete the whole
Valve element at the end of your
/etc/tomcat9/server.xml, and replace it with the following one:
Then delete all Tomcat logs now and after a bit only
access.log should have been generated:
Debian 10's Tomcat comes with an almost-usable systemd service that needs to be amended in order to (1) avoid the systemd-house-of-horror that's still all too common with Tomcat packaging, and (b) allow the IDP application to write logs and metadata to the filesystem. Since we're creating an override for the system-supplied systemd service unit anyway we'll also set the maximum memory usage there (to 3GB in the example "-Xmx3g" below) – adjust as needed (3-4GB should be sufficient), also leaving a bit of RAM for the OS. Not that you should be running anything else on an IDP server.
Activate the override with
systemctl daemon-reload, maybe also verify with
systemd-delta | fgrep tomcat